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Fennel Seeds / Fennel Roots

Fennel Seeds / Fennel Roots
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Description
An annual herb, 30-60cm high, leaves pinnatifid or ternately pinnate, flowers small, white in compound umbels, fruit avoid or pyriform, laterally compressed, broad, greyish green to greyish brown, mericarp broadly avoid, 5 ridged with short hairs and numerous vittae. 

Chemical Constituents
Anise contains a volatile oil, furabicicoumarins, flavonoids, fatty acids, pheylpropanoids, sterols and proteins. Antheole has an observed effect, and the seeds as a whole are mildly . The effect substantiate the herb's use as a stimulant of drive and of breast-milk production. 

Cosmetic Uses
Tiny amounts of the essential oil, produced from the seeds, are added to toothpaste, perfumes and mouthwashes, and are used to mask bitter medicines, but in large amounts Anise is highly toxic. Grounded seeds are added to a face pack. Seed oil is used in perfumes, toothpastes, soaps and mouthwashes. Aromatic Seed Use crushed in potpourri. Anise mixed with bay leaves provides an excellent bath additive prior to ritual. Using anise in potpourri around the house wards off evil, and anise in your sleeping pillow at night will chase away the nightmares. The essential oil is used in ritual baths prior to any divination attempts. It is believed that hanging an anise seed head on your bedpost will restore lost youth. 

The seeds are carminative (they move gas out of the intestinal tract). Used in tea or as lozenges, they soothe a hard cough. 

The composition according to the invention is intended primarily as a product for topical cosmetic application to human skin, especially as an agent for conditioning, moisturizing and smoothening the skin, and preventing or reducing the appearance of lined, wrinkled or aged skin. Anise is used in cough mixtures, as it is expectorant and soothes spasms of irritant coughs and bronchial problems. It promotes estrogen production and is used to encourage breast milk, ease childbirth, and stimulate libido. 

Medicinal Uses
Anise seeds are known for their ability to reduce wind and bloating, and to settle the digestion. They are commonly given to infants and children to relieve colic, and to people of all ages to ease countering period pain, asthma, whooping cough and brochitis. The seeds expectorant action justifies their use for these respiratory ailments. Anise seeds are thought to increase breast-milk production and may be beneficial in treating impotence and frigidity. Anise essential oil is used for similar complaints, and is also used externally to treat lice and scabies.

Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamon

Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamon
Description
A moderate sized evergreen tree, 8-18 m in height and 50 cm in diameter with reddish brown soft bark, having numerous small warts; leaves ovate or elliptic-ovate, shiny above, 3-5 ribbed from a little above the base, the side ribs ending about three- fourths up, the base usually rounded; flowers small in axillary or sub-terminal cymes or panicles; fruits ovoid berry, dark purple in colour having persistent perianth. 

Chemical Constituents
Eugenol, O-eugenol, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, I-a- pinene, I-a-and I-B-phellandrene, p-cymene, caryophyllene, benzoate and linalool. Presence of safrole, acetyleugenol, cinnamyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol. 

Cosmetic Uses
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) has many common everyday uses and some not so common uses. Everybody has probably used cinnamon for some reason, whether for cooking purposes or medicinal purposes. Despite being widely used in food and pharmacy it is also important in the cosmetic and perfumery industries (7). In some areas cinnamon has been known to be used for religious purposes. It is no wonder cinnamon is an important economic plant with all these possible uses for its products. Although it is mildly astringent, Cinnamon has few cosmetic uses as it is strongly stimulating to the skin and warms the body. It is stimulating, toning and warming. o Cosmetics (clove and carnation scent) 

Mouthwashes, toothpaste, Dental cements and packing agents, Antiseptics, Food flavour, Over-the counter medicines. 

Cinnamon Bark 
One of the spices that spurred world exploration, cinnamon bark is a natural astringent known to suspend excess oil on oily skin or scalp. Uses: The bark is acrid, bitter, sweet, aromatic, astringent, , deodorant, stimulant, alexeteric, expectorant, febrifuge, diuretic, and carminative. It is useful in bronchitis, asthma, cephalalgia, odontalgia, cardiac diseases, diarrhoea, uropathy, nausea and vomiting, flatulence, fever, halitosis and restoring normal skin colour on the face. Cinnamon oil is stomachic, carminative, emenagogue and styptic. Cinnamon is best known for its action on the digestive system as an appetite stimulant, and general tonic.

Eucalyptus, Blue Gum

Eucalyptus, Blue Gum
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Description
A lofty tree about 90m in height with a clean straight bole and smooth bark, peeling off in long strips, leaves opposite on juvenile shoots, alternate in adult shootes, lanceolate, 20-25cm long, broad, rather thick and curved, flowers large, white, 1-3 together in axils, operculum thick and warty, fruit a hardened capsule, dehiscing longitudeinally at the mouth, seeds very small. 

Chemcal Constituents
Eucalyptin, 8-desmethyleucalyptin, sideroxylin, 8-demethylsideeroxylin, quercetin, quercitrin, quercetol and its 3- degulcoside, chrysin, rutin hyperoside, phloroglucin derivatives, EA, to EJ, n-tritriacontan-16-18 dione, 4-hydroxytritriaconate- 1-18-dione, 16-hydroxy-18-tritriacontanone, 11, 12-dehydroursolic lactone acetate, caffeic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, protocatechuic, maslinic and oleanolic acids. 

Cosmetic Uses
Eucalyptus has a cleansing effect on the skin and reduces redness and irritation. Eucalyptus oil is reputed to aid in wound healing and is antispetic and anti-parasitic. It is antiseptic (especially in baths and massage). It can be used for burns, blisters, herpes, cuts, wounds, skin infections and insect bites. 

Medicinal Uses
The oil is acrid, bitter, astringent, thermogenic, oleaginous, antiseptic, deodoratnt, stimulant, anodyne, carminative, digestive, anthelmintic, cardiotonic, diuretic, sudorific, expectorant, insect repellent, rubefacient and antipyretic. Eucalyptus has a cooling and deodorizing effect on the body, helping with fevers, migraine and malaria. It helps with coughs, asthma, throat infections, sinusitis and catarrhal conditions. It soothes inflammation and eases mucus, clearing the head from the stuffiness of colds and hay fever. Eucalyptus oil is useful as a warming oil when used for muscular aches and pains, rheumatoid arthritis, sprains and poor circulation. 

Eucalyptus oil can boost the immune system, and is helpful especially in cases of chicken pox, colds, flu and measles. Internal use of the oil in excess will cause cardiac debility, vomitting and diarrhoea.

Eucalyptus Oil Blends with 
Eucalyptus blends well with thyme, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, pine, cedarwood, and lemon, lavender, lemon, marjoram, pine, peppermint. For rheumatism or tight muscles, blend with cajeput, black pepper, ginger, juniper, marjoram and rosemary. 

Dried Ginger

Dried Ginger
Description
A slender, perennial rhizomatous herb, leaves linear, sessile, glabrous, flowers yellowish green in oblong, cylindric spikes, ensheathed in a few scarious, glabrous bracts, fruits oblong capsules. The rhizomes are white to yellowish brown in color, irregularly branched, somewhat annulated and laterally flattened. The growing tips are covered over by a few scales. The surface of the rhizome is smooth and if broken a few fibrous elements of the vascular bundles project out from the cut ends. 

Chemical Constituents
a-Curcumene, a-curcumene, B-D-curcumene, a-bergamotene, B-and camphene, y-bisabolene, B-bourbornene, d-borneol and its acetate, clamene, d-camphene, car-3-ene, a-cedrol, citral, citronellol. 

Cosmetic Uses
Ginger, when included in soaps, warms the skin. Use it sparingly and in ground form only. A stimulant and anti-irritant, its warming, soothing properties are very beneficial to the skin. Sometimes used as a fragrance. Ginger is an excellent ingredient for bath oils and other cosmetics. Analgesic. Commercially, ginger is also used as a fragrance in cosmetics and other products such as air fresheners. Ginger is traditional aid for motion sickness and digestion when diluted with food or edible oils. Can be diluted with massage oil and applied to skin for warming effect 

Dust your body in with warm, spicy, sensual Ginger powder, apply a little lightweight clothing then head off for the evening in a fragrant cloud of eastern blooms and West Indian warmth. On cold days, comfort yourself with a dusting of Ginger before you put on your woollies and imagine you're in a spice garden, not a suburb. The aromatic freshness starts at your feet and spreads to the rest of your body while strengthening your limbs and penetrating your mind and heart with joyful lightness. 
Gentle enough to use everyday, this soymilk-enriched formula seals in essential moisture and proteins as it invigorates and purifies the hair. 

Medicinal Uses
The raw ginger is acrid, thermogenic, carminative, laxative and digestive. It is useful in anorexia, vitiated conditions of vata and kapha, dyspepsia, pharyngopahty and inflammations. The dry ginger is acrid, thermogenic, emollient, appetiser, laxative, stomachic, stimulant, rubefacient, anodyne, , expectorant, anthelmintic and carminative. It is useful in dropsy, otalgia, cephalalgia, asthma, cough, colic, diarrhoea, flatulence, anorexia, vitiated conditions of vata and kapha, dyspepsia, cardiopathy, pharyngopahty, cholera, nausea, vomiting , elephantiasis and inflammations. It is also much used in several domestic preparations. Crystalized or infused Ginger suppresses nausea. Ginger tea eases indigestion and flatulence, and reduces fever. the root is warming to the body, is slightly antiseptic, and promotes internal secretions. 

Blending oils

Holy Basil, Sacred Basil

Holy Basil, Sacred Basil
An erect much branched softly pubscent undershrub, 30-60cm high with red or purple subquadrangular branches, leaves simple, opposite, elliptic, oblong, obtuse or acute, entire, serrate, or dentate, pubscent on both sides, minutely gland dotted, petioles slender, hairy, flowers, purplish in elongate racemes in close whorls, stamens exserted, upper pair with a small bearded appendage at the base, fruits nutlets, smooth, not mucilaginous when wetted. 

Chemical Constituents
Eugenol, Eugenol methol ether and carvacrol, methyl chavicol cineole and linalool, Ursolic acid. 

Cosmetic Uses
Basil is widely used in cosmetics, perfumes, shampoos and soaps. Formulated to restore luster, body and flexibility to limp and non-manageable hair. To strengthen and give volume without added weight. Contains Sea Alginate for a fine, gentle hair coating. Use in combination with Lemon Perfecting Rinse and ideally in conjunction with Holy Basil Conditioning Scalp Toner. Herbalists recommend basil tea for stomach aches, indigestion and constipation. They steep a teaspoon of dried basil leaves in a cup of boiling water to make a tea that soothes, relaxes and aids digestion. Use dried basil leaves in potpourris and sachets. Tulsi has been shown to be helpful in helping irritated skin feel better. Aromatic and used for drying, for fragrance in pot-pourris and sachets; cosmetic use in herbal bath mixtures and for bringing luster to the hair. 

Ursolic acid is one of the constituents of holy basil, which has anti ageing properties. Ursolic acid treatment improves the health of skin and hair. Ursolic acid and its derivatives form oil-resistant barriers on the skin and hair as they do in the waxy coating of fruits6. Ursolic acid has been used to treat photoaged skin because it prevents and improves the appearance of wrinkles and age spots by restoring the skin's collagen bundle structures and its elasticity. 

Holy Basil Conditioning in case of dandruff and itching we recommend using Scalp Toner each time after a cleansing treatment. It was said to strengthen faith, compassion, and mental clarity. More recent clinical experience shows that Basil increases blood flow to the brain, relieving mental fatigue, enhancing clear thinking, and improving memory. Basil also connects the thought process with speech, enhancing self-expression. Basil has been used as a sacred herb in India and Europe for many centuries. Basil is used in hair rinses to bring luster to hair.

Mint, Spearmint, Mentha Spicata, Garden Mint, Lamb Mint

Mint, Spearmint, Mentha Spicata, Garden Mint, Lamb Mint
Description
A glabrous perennial, 30-90cm high, with creeping rhizomes, leaves smooth or nearly so, sessile, lanceolate to ovate, acute, coarsely, dentate, smooth above, glandular below, flowers lilac, in loose, cylindrical slender, interrupted spikes. 

Chemical Constituents
Major components in the spearming oil are carvone, dipentent, dihydrocarveol, dihydrocarveol acetate, and limonene. 

Cosmetic Uses
Mint oil is commonly used for medicinal, culinary and cosmetic purposes. Mint is well known for its ability to ease indigestion and upset stomach. The menthol in mint can help clear sinuses and relieve cold symptoms. In some cases, mint is used to alleviate migraines and fever. It is best to consult a physician before self-treating any potential ailment or symptoms. 

Mint is Aromatic, cosmetic, culinary, and medicinal. Fresh or dried mint leaves scent sachets and potpourris. Spearmint is used in baths to refresh and cool skin, in facials to cleanse the skin, and in lotions. Mint oil has wide uses in tooth paste, mouth wash, chewing gum, candy, hair oil, perfume, cigarettes and cosmetic products. 

Mint oil can be found in a wide variety of common household products, ranging from tea to toothpaste. The oil is gathered via a distillation process whereby the mint leaves are steamed, allowing natural oils to surface. It can take hundreds of leaves to produce just a few teaspoons of mint oil, but just a couple drops can be extremely powerful. Mint oil is also frequently added to massage oil, lotions and shampoos. 

Many renowned chefs include mint oil in their recipes to add flavor. It is also widely used in candy, cookies, jellies, and of course, chewing gum. The juices and drinks use freshly crushed mint leaves. Mint imparts a clean, refreshing taste, making it a popular ingredient in many types of foods. The home fragrance industry has capitalized on mint as well. Mint oil is often used in potpourri, sachets and room sprays. It is usually combined with other fragrant herbs such as lavender or bergamot and lends a revitalizing quality.

Mint, Peppermint, Field Mine, Japanese Mint

Mint, Peppermint, Field Mine, Japanese Mint
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Description
Perennial herbs, 30-50cm High : Stems quadrangular, erect or prostate, rooting at the nodes. Leaves opposite, ovate, softly tomentose on both sides, margins serrate, Inflorescence in axillary capitate whorl: flowers small, white or lilac. 

Chemical Constituents 
The whole plant yields an essential oil consisting of L-menthol 65-85%, menthhyl acetate, L-menthone, L-a-pinene, limonene. 

Cosmetic Uses
Mint Oil is commonly used for medicinal, culinary and cosmetic purposes. Mint is well known for its ability to ease indigestion and upset stomach. The menthol in mint can help clear sinuses and relieve cold symptoms. In some cases, mint is used to alleviate migraines and fever. It is best to consult a physician before self-treating any potential ailment or symptoms. 

Mint is Aromatic, cosmetic, culinary, and medicinal. Fresh or dried leaves scent sachets and potpourris. Spearmint is used in baths to refresh and cool skin, in facials to cleanse the skin, and in lotions. Mint oil has wide uses in tooth paste, mouth wash, chewing gum, candy, hair oil, perfume, cigarettes and cosmetic products. 

Mint oil can be found in a wide variety of common household products, ranging from tea to toothpaste. The oil is gathered via a distillation process whereby the mint leaves are steamed, allowing natural oils to surface. It can take hundreds of leaves to produce just a few teaspoons of mint oil, but just a couple drops can be extremely powerful. Mint oil is also frequently added to massage oil, lotions and shampoos. 

Medicinal Uses
The entire plant, apart from the roods, is antibacterial and antibrile. It yields an essential oil and menthol which exert, through their rapid evaporation, slightly anaesthetic and anodyne local effect. It is effective in coryza, adiaphoretic fever, headache, rhinitis, cough sore throat, arthralgia, neuralgia, colic, vomiting, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and prurigo. The essential oil and menthol are the constituents of several balsams. Poultices of fresh leaves and th inhalation of essential oil and menthol are also prescribed.

Aloe, Aloe Vera, Indian Aloe

Aloe, Aloe Vera, Indian Aloe
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Description
Aloe Vera is a a coarse perennial with short stem and shallow root system: Its leaves are fleshy in rosettes, sessile, often crowded with homy pickles on the margins, convex below, 45-60cm long tapering to a blunt point, surface pale green with irregular white blotches, flowers yellow or orange in racemes. Aloe vera fruits are like loculicidal capsule.

Chemical Constituents
Aloe vera leaves contain barbaloin, chrysophanol glocoside and the aglycone, aloe-emodin. The mucilage of the leaves contains glucose, galactose, mannose and galacturonic acid in addition to an unidentified aldopentose and a protein with 18 amino acids. Aloe vera plant contains aloesone and aloesin. Chemical analysis has revealed that this clear aloe vera gel contains amino acids, minerals, vitamins, enzymes, proteins, polysaccharides and biological stimulators.

Medicinal Uses
The plant is bitter, sweet, cooling, anthelmintic, aperient, carminative, deobstruent, depurative, diuretic, stomachic, emmenagogue, ophthalmic and alexeteric. Aloe vera juice is used in dyspepsia, amenorrhoea, burns, colic, hyperadenosis, hepatopathy, splenopathy, skin diseases, constipation, spanomenorrhea, vitiated conditions of vata and pitta, abdominal tumours, dropsy, carbuncles, sciatica, lumbago and flatulence.

It also is used for helminthiasis in children and is a purgative, anthelmintic and emmenagogue. Aloe vera is used for local application in painful inflammations, chronic ulcers and catarrhal and purulent ophthalmia. 

COSMETIC USES
Aloe Vera has unique, anti-aging formulations to maintain healthy, fresh-looking skin. The aloe vera plant's healing powers are most widely touted for being able to treat skin conditions. These conditions include psoriasis, shingles, and others associated with itching; in addition, cuts, abrasions and burns are said to benefit from topically applying the leaf's gel to the affected areas.

The uses of aloe vera -- that is, its efficacy -- stem from its active ingredients. These substances harbor anti-inflammatory properties, which may explain why it has been reported to alleviate the pain and swelling associated with itches and burns. Aloe Vera gel has unique, anti-aging formulations to maintain healthy, fresh-looking skin. Its Cosmetic action is antinflammatory, soothing, toning, moisturizing, protective.

Neem Leaves / Neem Tree / Margosa Tree Parts

Neem Leaves / Neem Tree / Margosa Tree Parts
Description
A medium to large sized tree, 15-20m in height with a clear bole of 7.0m having grayish to dark grey tubercled bark, leaved compound, imparipinnate, leaflets, subopposutem serrate, very oblique at base; flowers cream or yellowish white in axillary panicles, staminal tubes conspicuous, cylindric, widening above 9-10 lobed at the apex: fruits one-seeded drupes with woody endocarp greenish yellow when ripe, seeds ellipsoid, cotyledons thick, fleshy and oily. 

Chemical Constituents
the stembark contain: tannin, non-tannin and red dye. The bark exudes a clear, bright, amber -colored gum, known as the East-India Gum. The neem leaves contain nimbin, nimbinene, 6-desacetynimbinene, bimbandiol, nimbolide and quercetin. The presence of B-sitosterol, no-hexacosanol and nonacosane is also reported in neem leaves. Analysis of the mature neem tree leaves gave mositure, protein, fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and minerals, calcium phosporus, iron, thiamine, niacin, vitamin carotene and cal val. The amino acids present in neem tree seeds and leaves are: glutamic acid, tyrosine, aspartic acid alanine, proline, and glutamine. The neem fruits contain gedunin, 7-deacetoxy-7a-hydroxy gedunin, azadiradione, azadirone, 17B-hydroxy-azadiradione, 17-epiazadiradione and nimbiol. 

Cosmtic uses
Blood purifier and beauty enhancer Neem is highly anti-bacterial and therefore the neem leaves have been used for centuries to make anti-bacterial washes and poultices. Use the neem leaves extract in face packs, body wraps, and for acne prone skin. Add to (mild) scrubs for skin problems such as eczema and psoriasis. Use in a gardeners hand scrub with corn meal to provide anti-bacterial cleansing after working in the soil. The neem oil is used in hair dressings; resin is added to skin lotions. 

Neem oil, leaves and neem extracts are used to manufacture health and beauty care products. Some of such products are soaps, bath powders, shampoos, lotions and creams, toothpastes, neem leaf tablets to increase immunity, insect repellents, pet care products, etc. 

The margosa oil is used for burning and for hydrogenation. Neem tree is considered a good purifier of air due to its large leaf area. Oil cake, obtained from neem seeds, is used as a fertiliser and manure. Neem leaves are used to repel insects and to preserve woollens. Extract of neem tree leaves is used in soaps.

Nettle Leaves, Nettle Roots

Nettle Leaves, Nettle Roots
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Description 
A perennial growing to 1.5m, with lance-shaped leaves and green flowers with yellow stamens in axillary cymes. 

Chemical Constituents
Flavonoids, amines, Glucoquinone, Minerals, Plant sterols, Phenols. Other vitamin ingredients are Vitamins C and E, along with minerals, and rich in chlorophyll when eating the cooked nettle shoots. 

Cosmetic Uses 
In reality the herb is very rich in Vitamin A and C. It also provides an excellent source of calcium and iron. Nettles Leaf Powder A valuable herb with many uses, especially useful in hair care products. Can be used as is in soap, or to make a tincture or extract. 

Has a long history of use in traditional medicine. Its flesh is rich in minerals and plant hormones and it stimulates hair growth and softens the hair. It is used as a hair rinse (especially for light hair): wash and dry nettle roots; soak 2 handfuls of roots in 2 quarts of cold water overnight; next day bring mix to a boil and then simmer for 10 to 15 minutes; strain roots; use remaining liquid as a hair rinse. Will yield greenish yellow from the above-ground plant with an alum mordant. Make a weak nettle tea as a face wash to firm up skin and remove excess oils. A nettle vinegar made with 1 ounce of fresh nettle in 6 ounces cider vinegar is an excellent astringent. A very strong nettle tea combed through the fair will reduce grey over time and will stimulate the scalp. 

This herb is a popular product in shampoos and facials. It has been well tested and shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Because it is a vasodilator it has been used medicinally to excite the skin locally. It is also used for stimulating hair growth, treating dandruff and used to treat dark circles around the eye. 

The stinging reaction caused by the plant hairs is said to contain many active ingredients, such as formic acid, like what ant's inject when they bite your skin and make you sting and burn, not to mention, itch. Other ingredients include: histamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, hydroxytryptamine and other irritants. So, many of these ingredients are neurotransmitters and affect nerve cells, so this is probably why it gives such an irritant effect, and why it may be better used for alopecia areata. 

Medicinal Uses

Turmeric, Turmeric Rhizomes, Long Turmeric

Turmeric, Turmeric Rhizomes, Long Turmeric
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Description
Tufty perennial herb about 1m high. Rhizome thick much-branched, golden-yellow, leaves large, entire, long-sheathed, glabrous on both sides. Inflorescence cylindrical , arising from the leaves, on a scape of yellow flowers and greenish or whitish bracts with pink tips. 

Chemical Constituents
The rhizomes contain the pigment curcumin, and essential oil consisting of sesquiterpenes, zingiberene, D-a-phellandrene, tumerone, dehydroturmerone, y and a-alanto lactone curcumene, cineol. 

Uses
The rhizome is well known for its anti-gastric-ulcer, and -inflammatory and cholagogic properties. It is prescribed in the therapy of gastric and duodenal ulcer, hepatitis, jaundice, menstrual disorders, post-partum or menstrual haematometra, contusions, rheumatism, pain in the extremities, boils and impetigo. It is also used as a pultice for wounds to avoid their cicatrization.

Toothache Tree Seeds

Toothache Tree Seeds
An armed shrub or a small tree, upto 6 m in height with dense glabrous foliage and straight pickles on stmes, blaze yellowish brown rapidly darkening on exposure; leaves compound, imparipinnate, rachis winged, often bearing pink prickles, leaflets 5-11, lanceolate, more or less serrate, each serrature with a pellucid gland, glabous, dark glossy green above, pale beneath, the terminal larger than the laterals; flowers yellow or gree in dense terminal or axillary panicles, polygamous:
fruits reddish subglobose glabrous follicles; seeds solitary, globose, shining, black.

Chemical Constituents
It contains Pipevine, linalool, linalyl acetate, citral, cinnamatic, limonene, sabinene.

Cosmetic Uses
Toothache tree was used in frontier times and by native Americans as a remedy for toothache, and also externally for joint pain. As many of you experienced in class, a little piece of bark contains enough of the secondary compound to produce a tingling sensation followed by numbness in the lips or gums. The leaves work as well as the bark. In fact, if you hold the leaves up to the light, you can see the small glands that produce the secondary compounds scattered around in the leaf tissue. Obviously a compound that causes numbness in vertebrate tissues would be an effective deterrent to herbivores, because it would cause numbness and loss of function in the digestive tract of any animal that ate the plant's leaves or other tissues.

Most if not all members of this family produce "secondary compounds", which are metabolic products that are not part of the primary metabolic pathways of the plant (e.g. are not involved in photosynthesis or respiration, nor are structural parts of the plant). The fruit, branches and thorns are used as a remedy for toothache. The roots, stem bark and wood yield the alkaloid magnoflorine.

Several Zanthoxylum species grow throughout the temperate belt of China, Japan, the Himalayas and North America. They all have similarities, being aromatic and used in herbal remedies. Only the pipertium variety of the East is useful for cooking. In Japan the wood of the prickly ash is used to make mortars and pestles which impart some flavour to the substances being ground. The Japanese also use the wood for tobacco pipes. Szechwan pepper is still fairly uncommon in the West, so it may be helpful when looking for it to be familiar with some of the other common names and spellings for it: Sichuan pepper, Szechwan pepper and fagara to name a few - see below for others.

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    Rahul Agrawal

    Natural Cosmetic Supplies (Unit Of Mother Herbs)

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